Urethral Stricture

Causes of Urethral Stricture

Infection of urethra    

Infection of urethra:

Urethritis, Urinary tract infections.

Exposure to unsafe sexual practices:

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, etc.
Iatrogenic   Trauma


Instrumentation like catheterization, urethroscopy, cystoscopy, urethral dilators, indwelling catheter, etc.


Trauma from injury or accidents with damage to the urethra or bladder. Urethral trauma is at three different levels-
  • Penile -Direct penetrating injury
  • Bulbar- Falling on a frame of a bicycle between the legs or a perineal kick
  • Membranous- Pelvic fracture urethral distraction defects
After surgery    

After surgery:

Previous prostate surgery - Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), Previous hypospadias surgery (a congenital birth defect in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis instead of the tip), etc.

After circumcision:

Operation to remove the prepuce (foreskin of the penis).
Meatal ulcer   Lichen Sclerosis (LS) or Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO):

Meatal ulcer:

Ulceration at the opening of the urethra.

Lichen Sclerosis (LS) or Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO):

A skin disease of the genitalia. Dr. Stuhner described BXO in 1928. Lichen Sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of unknown origin and its pathogenesis has not yet been completely characterized.
Prostatitis   Prostate enlargement


Infection or inflammation of the prostate.

Prostate enlargement

Urethral cancer (rare)    

Urethral cancer (rare)



Congenital malformations of the urethra, which rarely can cause urethral stricture in children.


Where the actual cause cannot be established.

Almost 50% of cases of urethral stricture are iatrogenic (resulted from instrumentation and surgeries, etc.) and about one-third of cases are idiopathic.

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